en

Maputo protocol

Understanding the Maputo Protocol 


What Is the Maputo Protocol?

The Maputo Protocol is a big promise made by African countries to make sure that women in Africa have the same rights as men. In 2003, the leaders of these countries agreed to follow a set of rules, called the Maputo Protocol, which helps protect women and gives them more power in areas like politics, work, and home.

The formally titled 'Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa', stands as a milestone in the advancement of women's rights on the African continent. Adopted by the African Union in 2003 and coming into effect in 2005, the protocol embodies a collective resolve of African states to eradicate gender inequality and promote women's rights in legislative, social, and cultural spheres. This essay provides a dissection of the Maputo Protocol's content, examining its significance and the extent to which it has impacted the lives of women in Africa. 


Why Is It Important?

For a long time, women in Africa have faced harder lives than men. They often don't have the same chances and are treated unfairly just because they are women. The Maputo Protocol tries to change this by making sure women are treated equally, can make choices about their own lives, and are safe from harm.


Key Points of the Maputo Protocol

The Maputo Protocol is comprehensive, addressing a wide array of issues including marriage, divorce, land and property rights, gender-based violence, and reproductive health. It significantly outpaces previous legislation by not only advocating for non-discrimination and equality but also recognising the right of women to participate in the political process, enjoy social and political equality with men, control their reproductive health, and dismantle all forms of gender-based violence.

Particularly notable is Article 14, which offers groundbreaking provisions for women's reproductive health rights, including the rights to contraception and abortion under specific circumstances, a contentious issue in many African societies. Similarly, Article 5 of the protocol calls for the elimination of practices that endanger the health and general well-being of women, like female genital mutilation (FGM).


Is It Making a Difference?

In some countries, yes! Because of the Maputo Protocol, more women are getting into politics, like in Rwanda where lots of women are now in the government. Some places are also making laws to stop violence against women.

Still a long way to go - What's the Problem?

Not all African countries are following the rules they agreed to. Some haven't even promised to follow them yet. Even in countries that have said yes, things don't change overnight. Old habits, not enough money, and weak legal systems can slow things down.

Background and Significance

Emerging from the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, known as the Banjul Charter, the Maputo Protocol is contextualised within a framework that acknowledges the unique challenges faced by African women. Historically, colonialism, socio-economic, and cultural factors have contributed to the marginalisation of women in many African societies. The Protocol was conceived as a response to these challenges, aiming to rectify systemic gender disparities and ensure comprehensive rights for women.

Maputo Protocol Articles

The protocol comprises a range of articles that set out specific rights and protections that state parties must enact, including the rights to life, the integrity and security of the person, legal protection, and social and political participation.

Maputo Protocol Ratification Status

As of my last update, many African Union member states had ratified the Maputo Protocol, while some had signed but not yet ratified, and a few had taken no action. The ratification table would provide a country-by-country breakdown of the signatories and ratifications. The ratification involves countries agreeing to be legally bound by the terms of the protocol and implementing its provisions into their national laws.

Some countries have made reservations to particular articles of the protocol when ratifying it due to conflicts with local laws or cultural practices. A reservation allows a state to be a party to the protocol while excluding the legal effect of certain provisions. 

A ratification table would list African Union member states and indicate which countries have signed, ratified, made reservations to, or not signed the protocol. This information is typically available through the official AU website or through updates from organizations monitoring the status of human rights treaties. 

The Maputo Protocol and female genital mutilation (FGM)

The Maputo Protocol explicitly calls for the elimination of harmful practices against women, including female genital mutilation (FGM). It obligates state parties to take necessary measures to prohibit and condemn all forms of harmful practices which negatively affect the human rights of women.

Maputo Protocol article 14

This article 14  of the protocol specifically focuses on the rights of women to health and reproductive health. It deals with the right to control fertility, the right to choose any method of contraception, the right to family planning education, and the establishment of appropriate health services for women.

The Article 14 of the Maputo Protocol addresses women's health and reproductive rights, including the right to medical abortion in cases of sexual assault, rape, incest, and where the continuation of the pregnancy endangers the mother's life or mental or physical health.



Maputo Protocol Summary PDF


For an in-depth understanding, a summary PDF can be sought, which would typically outline the key objectives, articles, and commitments of the protocol distilling the most pertinent points for easier analysis and understanding.


Maputo Protocol 20 Anniversary

Celebrating the 20th anniversary of the Maputo Protocol in 2023 would present an opportunity to reflect on its impact and status, as well as remaining challenges in advancing women's rights in Africa